Dust and Gas in the Andromeda Galaxy

Nhsc_nhsc2022-001b_1024

nhsc_nhsc2022-001b June 16th, 2022

Credit: ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech/GBT/WSRT/IRAM/C. Clark (STScI)

This image of the Andromeda galaxy, or M31, includes data from the ESA (European Space Agency) Herschel mission, supplemented with data from ESAs retired Planck observatory and two retired NASA missions: the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE).

Operated from 2009 to 2013, Herschel detected wavelengths of light in the far-infrared and microwave ranges, and was ideal for studying dust in nearby galaxies because it could capture small-scale structures in the dust clouds in high resolution. However, Herschel often couldnt detect light from diffuse dust clouds especially in the outer regions of galaxies, where the gas and dust become sparse and thus fainter. As a result, the mission missed up to 30% of all the light given off by dust. Combining the Herschel observations with data from other observatories creates a more complete picture of the dust in the galaxy.

In the image, red indicates hydrogen gas; green indicates cold dust; and warmer dust is shown in blue. Launched in 1983, IRAS was the first space telescope to detect infrared light, setting the stage for future observatories like NASAs Spitzer Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope. The Planck observatory, launched in 2009, and COBE, launched in 1989, both studied the cosmic microwave background, or light left over from the big bang.

Red indicates hydrogen gas detected using the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia, the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the Netherlands, and the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range 30-meter telescope in Spain.

Provider: Herschel Space Observatory

Image Source: https://www.herschel.caltech.edu/image/nhsc2022-001b

Curator: NASA Herschel Science Center, Pasadena, CA, United States

Image Use Policy: https://www.herschel.caltech.edu/page/image_use_policy

Image Details

Image Type
Observation
Object Name
Andromeda Galaxy M31 Messier 31 NGC 224
Subject - Local Universe
Galaxy > Type > Spiral

Distance

Universescale2
2,450,000 light years
Nhsc_nhsc2022-001b_128
 

Position Details

Position (ICRS)
RA = 0h 42m 44.3s
DEC = 41° 16’ 7.7”
Orientation
North is 40.6° CCW
Field of View
6.2 x 3.5 degrees
Constellation
Andromeda

Color Mapping

  Telescope Spectral Band Wavelength
Blue Herschel Infrared (Far-IR) 100.0 µm
Green Herschel Infrared (Far-IR) 350.0 µm
Red IRAM Millimeter (CO (1-0)) 2.6 mm
Red WRST Radio (HI) 210.0 mm
Extended emission data were also incorporated from IRAS, Planck, and GBT
Spectrum_ir2
Blue
Green
Red
Red
Nhsc_nhsc2022-001b_1280
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ID
nhsc2022-001b
Subject Category
C.5.1.1.  
Subject Name
Andromeda Galaxy, M31, Messier 31, NGC 224
Credits
ESA/NASA/JPL-Caltech/GBT/WSRT/IRAM/C. Clark (STScI)
Release Date
2022-06-16
Lightyears
2,450,000
Redshift
2,450,000
Reference Url
https://www.herschel.caltech.edu/image/nhsc2022-001b
Type
Observation
Image Quality
Good
Distance Notes
Facility
Herschel, Herschel, IRAM, WRST
Instrument
Color Assignment
Blue, Green, Red, Red
Band
Infrared, Infrared, Millimeter, Radio
Bandpass
Far-IR, Far-IR, CO (1-0), HI
Central Wavelength
100000, 350000, 2600000, 210000000
Start Time
Integration Time
Dataset ID
Notes
E
Coordinate Frame
ICRS
Equinox
Reference Value
10.6847, 41.2688
Reference Dimension
7400, 4162
Reference Pixel
3700, 2081
Scale
-0.0008333, 0.0008333
Rotation
40.6
Coordinate System Projection:
TAN
Quality
Full
FITS Header
Notes
Creator (Curator)
NASA Herschel Science Center
URL
https://www.herschel.caltech.edu/
Name
Email
Telephone
Address
1200 E. California Blvd.
City
Pasadena
State/Province
CA
Postal Code
91225
Country
United States
Rights
https://www.herschel.caltech.edu/page/image_use_policy
Publisher
NASA Herschel Science Center
Publisher ID
nhsc
Resource ID
Metadata Date
2022-07-22T05:14:10Z
Metadata Version
1.2
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Detailed color mapping information coming soon...

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Universescalefull
2,450,000 light years